Friday, 30 November 2012


(, 2012)

Our known Universe (between 10^-35 & 10^+27 meters) is a small band within the total Global Universe scale spectrum, which, in principle, can be infinite.
Our Universe is a "bubble" else of the many that exist in a larger scale than ours, within the Global Universe, and which also had their own Big Bang at different times.
Although the Underlying Fundamental Laws are the same for all spectra and ranges of the Global Universe, they manifest differently through them.
For the different bands of the spectrum of the 3D Rainbow may dominate different stimuli and waves, different fields and forces. And can be formed different entities and bodies. Parallel Universes can coexist in different Scale Levels (Also within the Planck Volume).
Different levels of scales can be considered Physical Open Systems, and this would mean that there could be an exchange of energy between them.


Everyone has present the movie "Fantastic Voyage" (based on the novel by Isaac Asimov, 1966) which reduces the size of a submarine (Proteus) and crews to be introduced into the blood circulatory system of a person so they can correct the condition that it has (blood clot in the brain).

The film has good scientific basis as always Isaac Asimov do, but also has some important conceptual errors, both from the standpoint of medicine / biology, and physics / mechanics: Circulation of the submarine in the blood (difference of the blood and water density, visibility,..).

But possibly the most obvious paradox, and possibly the least understand by the reader / viewer is that, by the fact of reducing a person's body is supposed to also reduce the component parts of the same way (cells, molecules, atoms, protons, ...). How it is possible that equivalent elements (Ex: water molecule) can coexist in the same system with different dimensions (up to 10 exp 5: 100,000 times)?. How the intruder would fit within the universe tiny that has been implanted?. What laws of physics / chemical / biological would be applicable (micro, macro, or a combination of both), and How they interact with each other?

This is what we could call Systems Theory for Spatial Scales (xyz Dimensions).

In physics and engineering there is also the Theory of Scale Models (to test prototypes at small scales), to simulate the behavior of certain variables from the starting parameters, to latter extrapolated to the actual dimensions and establishing the corresponding model-prototype similarity (Geometric, Kinematics and Dynamics) between real and scale models (whose relations are always different from one).


Even with their errors and paradoxes, this book / movie gives us an idea of ​​what could be traveling between different scales (powers of 10) of the space dimensions (XYZ). This is what we might call "Matryoshka Travels" in reference to the famous "Russian Dolls" called Matryoshka.

Likewise, we also evidence the difficulty and strangeness of these trips to smaller scales (Powers negative: cells, molecules, ...), where we cannot travel otherwise than by making as small as the size of the scale where we want to travel . For this film the reduction is 100,000 times, but if we move to the scale of the electrons, we would have to reduce our size 1,000,000,000,000 times (10 exp -18).

Instead travel to larger scales (Positive Powers: galaxy, universe, ...) always we imagine without having to change the scale or dimension. It is assumed that a spacecraft is used (inter-stellar or inter-galactic) and we move at high speeds (maximum speed of light). But we never imagine to travel there making larger (increasing) our size as well as we do in the case of travel to the small.

If we make this effort and we made this change of mind (although the concept itself is not scientifically feasible) we can visualize what could be a new concept / image of the Global Universe: 3D Rainbow or “Matryoshka” Dolls.

Usually, when we conceive beings from other worlds (other stars, galaxies or universes), we imagine them in a human scale. Or, what is the same, coming from the same spatial scale that we (humans) are. But we never imagine them coming from other different spatial scale (major or minor) to ours. Then in the event that they were very different, we would impede viewing or perceived them.


It is normal to visualize the different scales of the known universe in powers of 10 and taking as a base measure meter (see table below):

Negative Powers: For smaller scales (till 10 exp -35 meters for the "strings").
Positive Powers: For larger scales (till 10 exp+35 meters for "multiverses").

See link:

This give us a Global Universe compound or divided into different zones (bands, stripes, levels, spectra, ranges, ...) that form the different space scales of the universe.

Based on a scale of one meter (this is the power 10 exp 0), as we increase the exponent of 10 positive (1,2, ...., n), we will show larger sizes (10 exp 3 is 1 km , 10 exp 9 is a million km, and 10 exp 16 is a light-year, the distance light travels in one year).

Some dimensions of reference (m exp 10):

II BC (Eratosthenes measured diameter)
Solar System
XVI (Galileo & Kepler)
XVIII (Herschel)
(The farthest detected)
XX (Big-Bang of George Gamow)
35 (¿)
XXI (to prove and see)

If instead, we make powers 10 negative, we will define measures under (10 exp -3 is a millimeter, 10 exp -9 is a nanometer and 10 exp -35 is the Planck Unit).

Some dimensions of reference (m exp 10):

Cell / red blood cell
XVII (Robert Hooke)
1953 (Francis Compton-James Dewey)
Water Molecule
XIX (Amadeo Avogadro)
(The smallest detected)
1919 (Ernest Rutherford)
Electrón/ Quark
1897 (JJ Thomson) &1950 (M.Gell-Mann)
Siglo XXI (to prove and see)

Knowledge of the composition and the laws governing the various levels of scales (both positive and negative) has been discovered through the ages (Ages History) as scientific and technological advances. The advances in large (classical physics) have been produced earlier by the ease of being observed (for the last five centuries), while the small (quantum physics) have occurred mostly during the last century.


In each of these areas / zones (bands, stripes, levels, spectra, ranges,...) are supposed to act or apply (in a greater or lesser extent) some physical laws. These laws that would make that the elements and form structures coexist with a certain harmony and logic, as it does in our own area or stretch of Our Universe.  

We could say that Our Universe covers scales from 10 exp -35 (length or Planck scale, the smallest allowed by the current physics models due to the emergence of quantum gravity effects) to 10 exp +27 meters (which is longer than is considered is Our Universe).

The visual or graphical observation of these elements (both positive and negative scales) requires optical magnification systems or other wave detection systems:

  • Telescope (optical, x-ray, infrared,…) for the observation of large bodies to long distances (electromagnetic waves). The most distant objects that have been detected are 13,000 million light years (10 ^ +25 meters).
  • Microscopes (optical, electronic, nuclear, ...) for the observation of small bodies at very short distances. Smaller objects that have been detected are 10 ^ -15 meters.
In both cases, further the ability to increase (produced by the lens), one of the factors that hinder their vision is the lack of light (or other waves) as we increase the scale of vision.

In both cases, it is required high power glasses, and increased sophistication of technology or a long exposure to capture light (electromagnetic wave) needs to be viewed or recorded. And even in some cases requires the use of other wave detection systems (Telescope: X-ray, infrared,... and Microscope: electrons, forces, ...) to better detect these bodies.

It is like if to move away within this 3D-Rainbow (both positive and negative) from our reference range/strip, we ran out of the stimulus (waves) that requires humans to observe or record a form or body. It's the same that occur when we move in one of the spatial dimensions (XYZ) ,that it is becoming smaller and blurred the body or form that we move away.

From our point of observation, we are in the center of our spectrum or band of the Universe Global (Our Universe), in that as the size or scale of the bodies and entities move away from us, we find it more difficult to observe and detection. And whose boundaries have been extended through time, as that science and technology have progressed.

In an interview with Eduardo Punset the renowned astronomer and physicist Stuart Clark (2012), this last commented: "... Our species is halfway between the largest structures and the smallest of the Universe and we are very fortunate because it serves as a platform to observe the universe in all its dimensions ...". According to the theory proposed in this article should be this statement : "... Our species is halfway between the largest structures and the smallest of the Known Universe because from the reference spectrum scale where we are, is what our technology and expertise allows us to see and understand. But it is very possible that in the future this range will be widened in both directions and will allow us to see and understand the universe in broader dimensions... "


For centuries humanity has been assumed that the universe was Earth (flat or not) and Sky (with stars and planets) going around. The Earth was the center of the Universe on which revolved the other bodies.

Something similar happens to us now where we assume that the area (stripe, level, range, scale, ...) where we are within the Global Universe is the only real, but there may be other universes in other areas within this 3D-Rainbow that will have their own physical laws, and other types of forms or bodies, and even, why not, other living things.

If we can imagine (as an allegory) that an electron is the equivalent to the Earth revolving around the nucleus of an atom, like do the Earth around the Sun. How we would see our universe if we lived in this electron? We would imagine that we are part of another body or entity? As much as we travel with a spacecraft of this scale (10 exp -20), it would be very difficult for us to observe the entity that we belong to. And also it would be very difficult to receive the waves to display or capture the required information.

Possibly at this scale (negative powers), the waves are much smaller (both in frequency and scope) and undetectable to us now. These waves are what we would be able to detect if we were living in an electron, and of course, the waves we mean by light (electromagnetic optical spectrum) would be undetectable for us and the instruments that we would have in these dimensions (10 exp -20).

On this scale of negative powers prevail the fields (forces) weak and strong, with the electromagnetic, while the gravitational field has less influence. And it works now can be explained by of Quantum physics model and mathematical model of Neumann.

In these scales it is an Universe where coexist entities such as photons, bosons, graviton, neutrino, positron, etc.. And there is a duality between waves and particles. And the matter, as we know, becomes meaningless.  And the Uncertainty Principle (Heisenberg) is its essence more representative (at least seen from our scale).

The new theory Causal Dynamical Triangulation (abbreviated as CDT) propose that space-time to be two dimensions (one space and time) near the Planck scale, and reveals a fractal structure on slices of constant time. "Where Dynamic selects a particular preferred dimension between the three possible. This dimension would be given preferential classically and then it would randomly alternating physical processes that are operating at those scales "(Carlip, 2012).

For the civilization that, hypothetically, could be on these negative scales, the time scale could also be very different from our reference scale or our human scale. Possibly the emergence and end of a race or civilization on a scale 10 ^ -20 meters would take time proportional equivalent of our scale (For example, the human race: 10 ^ -20 x 100,000 years = 10 ^ -15 years = 10 ^ -8 seconds = 10 nanoseconds).

Likewise, we can extrapolate this experience to large scales (positive powers). Imagine (as an allegory) that a galaxy is a type of cell (neuron) of a Superior Entity, and that the interaction between these type of neurons (Galaxies) with other galaxies (neurons) make a thought (set of bits) of this Superior Entity.

At this scale of positive powers, prevail the gravitational and electromagnetic fields (forces), and the influence of strong and weak fields (strength) are less, or practically zero. And its functioning currently can be explained by the physical models of the Theory of Relativity (Special and General Relativity by Albert Einstein) and mathematical models of Riemann.

At these scales, there coexist entities as black holes, galaxies, nebulae, etc.. And there is a duality between matter and energy, and between space and time. And the speed of light as a constant and a limit of our universe, takes all its prominence. And there the Theory of Big Bang and Isotropic Expansion of our universe are its essence more representative (at least seen from our scale).

For the civilization that, hypothetically, could be on these positive scales, the time scale could also be very different from our reference scale or our human scale. Possibly transmitting a stimulus between a neuron (Galaxy) to another neuron (Galaxy) on a scale of 10 ^+20 meters will last for a proportional time equivalent to our scale (10 ^+20  x  1 microsecond = 10 +14 seconds = 10 ^ +7 years = 10 million years).

To an observer who was in either of these two scales (electron or macro-neuron), His Universe would be another. And it would cover other spectra or bands of the Global Universe.

At these spectra of the 3D Rainbow, as we have seen, govern other models and patterns, as well as other waves and stimuli, other fields and forces, other entities and bodies.

If we refer to the allegory of the 3D Rainbow, we could say that the universe of the electron would be in the "blue spectrum", while the neuron universe would be in the "yellow spectrum", while Our Universe would be in the middle, in the "green spectrum".

The latter would be our band, which is easily explained by the mathematical and physical models of Euclid, Newton and Maxwell. Where everything seems normal and takes logical sense. Where our brain and our senses are comfortable, because they have evolved to survive in it: "The Green Strip or Spectrum".


As that happened to our ancestors, we are slaves of the information we receive through the senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch) and we process this information according to the knowledge we have.

The universe as we know or perceive is a virtual model (illusion) that shapes our brain from the stimuli we receive from him through our senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). These senses have developed and evolved through natural selection for survival as the stimuli that exist in our universe (electromagnetic waves, pressure waves, ...) as well as in other animals have developed other ways as other stimuli (ultrasound waves, ...).

We could imagine entities (some already exist) that have organs (senses) sensitive to other stimuli such as X-rays, infrared or ultraviolet rays, radio waves, etc..

But it seems clear that the stimuli may be different in each zone or area of ​​the M-Dimension. There will be the same stimuli (waves, ...) at quantum scales (<10 -10="-10" at="at" exp="exp" large="large" scales="scales" that="that"> 10 exp +10). And they will be more different to much further scales from our universe (scales smaller than 10 exp -50 and greater than 10 exp +50). Although these scales are difficult to assimilate for us, and possibly they will be not feasible, according to current scientific and physical models.

On the other hand, if we consider that an atom measured on average 1 Ångstrong (1 Å ​​= 10 exp -10 meters) and the nucleus is 10 exp -14 meters, means that the nucleus of an atom (where there it is the mass of the atom) has a diameter 10,000 times smaller than the atom itself. If the atom had a diameter of 100 meters (a football field) the nucleus would measure 1 centimeter (a button). Put another way, in an atom fits 10,000,000 (10 exp 7) nucleus. So that for every 1 volume of mass is 10,000,000 vacuum.

Therefore, what we perceive or recognize as forms of Matter in the Universe (bodies) as a stimulus of the sense of touch, are but forms nearly empty (with a mass per volume of 10,000,000 of vacuum), but with electrical charges (positive and negative), which are what really give us the sensation (touch) consistency of the bodies or different states of matter (solid, liquid and gas). These are the electrical charges that prevent solid objects transferred. If we can neutralize the electrical charges of a body (ball), this could, with varying degrees of difficulty, pass another solid (walls).

And, if we consider that the Colors, which are what allow us to visualize and get a spatial composition of the forms of the universe around us (using the sense of sight), there are only electromagnetic waves ranging from red (700 nm = 7 10 exp -7) to violet (400 nm = 4 10 exp -7), which are produced by altering the orbits of electrons in molecules by excitation of photons colliding with them. If they do not photons (light) waves are not issued and do not see the body. According to the molecule, there are different waves giving different colors we see. All this reflects a somewhat virtual universe in which we live, and we do a composition according to the stimuli we receive.

All this reflects a somewhat virtual universe in which we live, and we do a composition according to the stimuli we receive. It's very similar to what might be a computer program, similar to "Second Life" or any 3D virtual game. Where in the smallest we find the "pixels" of light (the smaller they are, the higher definition quality), and the biggest thing we have to define loops establishing limits for the user does not notice them.

Extraordinary is the scene from the movie "Level 13" (directed by Josef Rusnak in 1999) in which the protagonist discovers that he is in a virtual computer program.


We are pure energy properly conjoined and harmonized by the Fundamental physical principles and laws underlying the universe. But these laws are manifested differently across the different spectra of the 3D Rainbow.

Different force fields known (weak, strong, electromagnetic and gravity) govern differently across these spectra or zones (scale) of the 3D Rainbow. This has forced to use different models and patterns so that we can explain and interpret them (Classical, Quantum and Relativistic Physics and mathematics of Euclid, Neumann and Riemann).

We can accept or agree that the Fundamental and Underlying Laws of the Global Universe are (or can be) the same for all spectra and stripes, although they manifest themselves differently through them. Thus, these manifestations of the physical laws of the different levels are not independent of each other, but rather dependent and consistent with each other, so that may be established models and theories that encompass several zones or spectrums, as Quantum Mechanics, the Theory of Relativity, or the lately M-Theory.

And these areas may even be (in some bands or scales) parallel universes with their fields, waves, stimuli, forms, beings (living or not), just as you would for a universe of three dimensions (X, Y and time) if appear the Fourth Dimension (Z). Assuming a sheet of a book like this in the Flat (3D) Universe entities that move across its surface XY, every leaf of a book could be a different flat universe (parallel universes), and could be as many universes as leaves .

If we see the diagram represent the different spectra (bands, zones, levels, ...) from the scale 10 exp -1000 to 10 exp +1000 in intervals of 10 exp 100, we can get an idea of ​​how big the Global Universe can be compared to Our Universe (known one) that moves only in the central strip (10 exp -50 to 10 +50) which, at best, really get to know or intuit from 10 exp -35 (strings) to 10 exp +35 (multi-universes).

Clearly these concepts are not limited just to these borders. But these bands or spectra and colors should be understood that they change in a gradual way (like the colors of the rainbow) and unbounded. Where there may be some effects that only cover a part of a strip (air pressure waves, sea waves, ...), and other various levels (electromagnetic waves, gravitational field, ...).

If this proposal (about a Global Universe that consists of different spectral bands like a 3D-Rainbow) was correct, then there could be electromagnetic waves at other scales that currently would not be detectable by our systems:

  • Both, large levels (eg. on scales of 10 exp +100 meters), which surely would be constantly going through Our Universe, although we could not detect them (or yes we could?). Electromagnetic waves of 10 ^ +100 meters wavelength could be passing through Our Universe, undetectable to the tools and technologies currently available. And, why not 10 ^ +1000 meters?.
  • As small levels (eg. exp scales of 10 -100 meters), which, considering their high energy levels, might have a very short range (within their own scale).
As we have mentioned above, at these scales also there could be another type of waves and fields, which are currently completely unknown to us. And they would own to the different physical models that would govern in the (Open) Physics System of these scales.

If the Scales Levels could be considered as Open Physical Systems, it would mean that there could be exchange of energy between them. Then, Our Known Universe, could absorb or lease energy from other scale levels (lower or higher) without contradicting the Second Law of Thermodynamics ("Energy can not be created or destroyed, only transformed"… or it change to another level or Scale System !!!).


Although scientists today are more open than before to accept or consider (at least not easily reject) any proposal or theory out of the usual guidelines, there is always some resistance to its acceptance, approval and distribution.

Nowadays, to be consistent with existing physical models, our universe has its limits within this 3D-Rainbow:

  • A lower limit: the Planck Scale of about 10 exp -35 meters (the estimated length of the superstring). An expected lower dimension can not be treated adequately in current physics models due to the emergence of quantum gravity effects.
  • A top limit: the proper size of Our Known Universe about 10 exp +27 meters.
So our known Strip or Zone of the Universe Global has a total "scale" order of magnitude  of 10 exp +62, less than a Googol (10 exp 100).

According to the currently accepted scientific theories, Our Universe is considered as a closed physical system and isotropically expanding. This leads to inconsistency of specifying a Dark Energy to explain this expansion, so as to have to accept that the expansion rate may be higher than the speed of light.

Possibly, if we consider Our Universe as an Open Physical System whether these inconsistencies could be solved (¿).

Isotropic Expansion is easily understood if we think of 4 coins (A, B, C and D) spaced 5 cm, which every 10 seconds we separated 5 cm. At the initial instant of separation between A and D would be 20 cm. But after 1 minute they would be 240 cm, while the speed of separation between them is only 30 cm per minute. If we imagine this idea considering the magnitudes of many stars and galaxies in the Universe, and the separation speeds, you can understand why it is assumed that the overall rate of expansion of the universe can exceed the speed of light .
A property of the Isotropic Expansion is that from anywhere in the universe will see objects (stars, galaxies,...) are distanced from us at a speed proportional to the distance you are away from us. Then if we put a limit to the expansion rate (Eg The speed of light), this implies that the expansion distance stop. If we look from Earth in all directions would have a border where the expansion would stop, and we (the Earth would be in the center). And this would be very strange and very casual.

The Hubble Space Telescope detected during 2003 and 2004 the area known as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), which displays what is believed to have been the first galaxies after the Big Bang, and it is supposed to include more than 13,000 million light years away. So they are the most distant objects ever observed by humans.

According to the Theory of Isotropic Expansion of the Universe (which expands equally at the same speed in all directions and zones), there is no center of the universe which generated the Big Bang, and there are no limits or external borders of Our Universe.

What has been seen in the HUDF is supposed to also be seen in any direction you look (in fact seems to have been carried pictures of other zones of the Universe with galaxies similar to the HUDF). So the HUDF not focus toward the center of the universe or the point of the Big Bang.

It is interesting to understand the difference between Our Universe (known) and our Observable Universe. Because the isotropic expansion occurs at a speed exceeding the speed of light, it is assumed that Our Universe (known) may have a diameter of 90,000 million light years. While, such as occurred approximately 14,000 million years ago, the Observable Universe is a sphere with a diameter of 28,000 million light years, within our universe.

Furthermore, and according to current conventional physical theories, Our Universe has no center, no boundaries, no limits outdoors. It has not a particular 3D morphological form. At these scales we talk about forms of 4D space-time, which make them difficult to assimilate us by our brain, and only be modeled mathematically (Friemann Equations and "Manifolds" Riemann).

There different alternatives are possible (space-time Universe Flat, Closed / Spherical or Open / Hyperbolic). And if the universe were flat (that it is the one that is considered more feasible), the form of 4D space-time of the universe could be a 4D Möbius Toro or 4D Klein bottle that they are Closed Loop Systems (loop of space-time that prevents anything can come out of this "4D volume" of space-time). It is neither more nor less than what we do to limit programs 3D computer games, to never exceed their limits, and without realizing it.

One way to understand the closed-loop systems is our own planet (Earth). For many centuries and thousands of years humanity considered that they lived on a Flat Earth (infinite or not,  and where sea water is poured by their limits), where the Sun, Moon, planets and stars swirled around. Now we know that it is spherical, and that if we walk straight to direction we want, after 40,000 km, we come back to the same place. This is a closed loop of 2D curved in 3D space.

The fact for which our known universe is present in such forms as complex 4D and not as a sphere or, at best, as an irregular cloud, is because it is considered that in these dimensions the space-time collapses on itself due to the enormous force of gravity.

Despite all this, who knows if someday we could detect objects outside of our universe, or even to escape this annoying 4D Closed Loop System in which we are. Although this Universe for viewing from outside, possibly our brain should be able to assimilate and understand 4D forms.

Our brain (and entire body) has evolved to survive and understand the scale range or level in which we live (at most 10 ^-10 and 10 ^+10 meters, between the molecules and the solar system). To understand the upper and lower scales it should make an extra effort, and rely on mathematical models, which are sometimes, completely impossible to understand by our brain. Are the scales between 10 ^ -30 to 10 ^ + 30 the limits that our brain is able to assimilate?

To better understand what has been said we can take the example of an ant. Is its brain ready to understand that the Earth is round? And what is it understanding when a human touches it or prevents the passage? For it this will be considered a phenomenon of nature, like an earthquake or hurricane.

It has long been considered many nebulae and galaxies visible to the naked eye as simple stars or nebulae, respectively, until the instruments allowed us to discern, and detected many galaxies. Currently it is believed that there are so many galaxies (10 exp 11) and stars (10 exp 11) in our galaxy (Milky Way).

Who knows if one day, we might be able to detect other objects or universes outside the boundaries or horizons of Our Universe. Or we detect waves or any other type of stimuli, which came from outside our universe, and out of this Closed Labyrinth 4D.

It would be absurd to think that the currently known limits of the Universe are their absolute limits. This would imply that we already know almost all the physical laws of the universe. But common sense tells us that it is more feasible that we are at the beginning of knowing, and that we still have much more to discover and understand.

"Why comply with the known models and patterns of Underlying Fundamental Laws of Our Universe, if we could understand better them if we could decode them from outside its boundaries?" (Common sense)


Mathematicians Theodor Kaluza (1919) and Oskar Klein (1926) proposed a theory that assumes the existence of higher-dimensional space (to the three known XYZ) wound on these at very small scales (Planck size). These would be circular dimensions new and independent directions. As if we look a hose from a distance seem to have only two dimensions, but, as we approach, we see it has another that forms its outer surface.
According to String Theory, these extra dimensions would be 6, and these should be rolled in a Calabi-Yau 6D shape. This theory could be compatible with the CDT (Causal Dynamical Triangulation).

For our scale, these dimensions do not affect us, and they cannot be appreciated. But for hypothetical residents within this size so small, they would take all their meaning and prominence.

We might ask whether the form of 4D space-time of our universe (4D Möbius Toro or 4D Klein bottle) would be just like these other dimensions of Kaluza-Klein rolled but for large dimensions (4D Loop System closed). So if we went out of Our Universe, certain dimensions that we detect inside would cease to have effect.

It is as we assert that the dimensions are different for different spatial scales of reference in which we find ourselves.


Any new scientific proposal must be adequately proven (experimental) or demonstrated (theoretically) to become officially accepted by the scientific community. And it is clear that to date there is no evidence (either experimental or theoretical) to prove or demonstrate this new model of the universe (3D Rainbow).

The aim of this article is simply to propose an idea or approach to be considered, that provides a broader scenario that this we currently have about our known universe. To accept the feasibility of this proposal will facilitate to define and plan the appropriate experiments and formulations for prove or demonstrate it. On the contrary, if we just stick to the known, and to the currently accepted limits, it will difficult to leave them.

The most evident (experimental) way to prove this approach, would be to detect signals (waves) specific to these strips (inside and outside) of the spectral band of Our Universe.

For the outer limits, it seems more acceptable the possibility of detecting known external signals (waves), or some evidences of the existence of other entities or universes. And it seems possible that some day we may be able to detect certain Electromagnetic Waves, or the enigmatic Gravitational Waves, income from outside of Our Universe.

If we assume that Our Universe is just one more of the millions of other possible universes, the potential Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves generated by the Big Bang of these other universes (generated prior to ours), could be currently crossing Our Universe.

However, for the inner borders seems more complex its detection. Because the only known signals we could detect are the Electromagnetic Waves of wavelength less than the Planck size, and they have a very high energy and possibly a very short range. Therefore, its detection seems to be very difficult.

Electromagnetic waves

A known signal that would allow us to validate the proposal are the electromagnetic waves that can interact in different spectral bands, from the smallest (<10 exp="exp" font="font"> -35 meters, the Planck length) to the largest (10 exp + 26 meters, the length of our universe).

But the existence of these waves would this mean that they were originated and come from outside the range of universe we know? Any EM wave of wavelength less than 10 exp -35 meters must necessarily come from scales smaller than this size, or could they also be generated within our known universe?. The same questions we could do on the EM waves above 10 exp +26 meters.

If we imagine again the allegory that an electron is the equivalent of the Earth turning around the nucleus of an atom, like do the Earth around the Sun, and also that intelligent beings could live on this scale with technology equivalent to ours, would they be able to create FM radio waves? And if they were not, would they be able to detect FM waves from higher scales?

For EM fields of small dimensions, there is the problem of high energy of these waves, in which a single wave (photon) with the Planck wavelength (10 exp -35 meters), carries energy of about 3 tons TNT. So to detect this type of electromagnetic radiation, we should hide in a shelter (bunker) and wait for it to produce a very loud explosion. Another problem is that these waves may have a very short range that will make it difficult its detection.

To detect large waves, also called ELF ("Extrem Low Frequency") or incorrectly "DC EM waves" ("Direct Current EM waves"), because they are nearly plane waves for our scale, we would have the problem opposite, their low power. In these waves the energy of the photons would approach zero, although its scope could be very long.

The electromagnetic waves of wavelength 10 exp +10, that is a frequency of 30 MHz (one wave every 30 seconds, nothing special in fact, similar to the magnetic resonance frequency of the magnetosphere field of the Earth ), could be easily detected, measured and recorded with a multi-meter connected to a strip chart recorder, and with very good insulation to avoid any noise or interference. This may involve having to locate the meter and all installation in the interplanetary space (in a interplanetary satellite or spacecraft as far away from any object: planet, satellite,...).

But things get complicated if we want to detect and record EM waves of longer wavelengths, and especially when it comes to lengths exceeding 10 exp +25 meters. This means a period of 1,000 million years for a complete cycle. And we should be able to perceive a small piece of the wave (accuracy 1/ variation of the wave amplitude for 1 year of measurement and recording). And at least We would need several measurements (and so many years as measurements).

One of the difficulties encountered for detecting these low frequencies (ELF: "Extreme Low Frequency") is the size of the antenna. The antennas should have a size approximate to half the wavelength with which they operate. However, there are other ways to build radio stations with smaller sizes due to electrical lengthening. But we would need a system of electrical lengthening between stations to very high distances (around the Earth, Earth-Moon, ...).

For long wavelengths of a few meters, a new generation radio telescope, the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), has started test operations in 2009 and will be fully operational in 2013. Most of the 40 planned stations operating in the Netherlands (, six in Germany (, and one in the UK (, one in Sweden ( and one in France ( The extension to other European countries are planned. Among the many possibilities LOFAR observation, is being able to track the radio synchrotron emission of low energy cosmic rays in weak magnetic fields. This allows us to observe the outermost regions of galaxies that are only accessible via radio waves.

But even if it were possible to detect these EM waves of wavelengths so extreme, positive or negative, is not 100% guaranteed that these waves came from beyond our known universe, but it is always a possibility to consider.

Gravitational Waves

Another option for detecting stimuli from outside of Our Known Universe could be the mysterious Gravitational Waves.

Gravity, which is the first force that the man knew (Galileo, Copernicus and Newton in the seventeenth century), before the EM (Oersted, Ampere and Maxwell in the nineteenth century) and obviously Quantum forces (weak and strong nuclear, Fermi and Yukawa in the twentieth century), nowadays is, possibly, the force (field) more unknown and enigmatic.

In physics, a Gravitational Wave is a ripple in space-time produced by a massive body accelerated. Gravitational waves are a consequence of general relativity theory of Einstein and transmitted at the speed of light. So far it has not been possible to detect any of these waves, although there is indirect evidence of them.

Gravitational waves can travel very long distances nearly unchanged, and its main possible sources are three types:

  • Catastrophic Sources by explosion, produced by the coalescence of compact binary star systems, or formation of neutron stars or black holes in supernovae.
  • Narrowband Sources: Rotation of individual stars not asymmetric as binary stars far from coalescence.
  • Stochastic funds due to the integrated effect of many sources of long distance, and even that could be generated by effects of the above sources produced in the early universe.
Latest studies suggest that one of the causes of Dark Energy might be the Primordial Gravitational Waves produced during the inflationary phase in the first moments of the Big Bang.

Currently there are several projects for the observation of gravitational waves, such as LIGO (USA), TAMA 300 (Japan), GEO 600 (Germany and UK), or VIRGO (France and Italy).

The pessimists believe that the actual detection of gravitational waves can only be done from space. A space mission called LISA ("Laser Interferometer Space Antenna") is currently under study to be the first space observatory for gravitational waves and could be operational around 2020.

The study of these waves will help us to answer questions about the early universe, the hypothetical end or their limits, and who knows if other universes outside our. It is possible that could be detected Stochastic Backgrounds generated by the Big Bang of other universes outside our own, or due to collisions between them.


Different Fields of Forces of Nature we know (strong and weak nuclear, electromagnetic and gravitational) have associated a particle (Higgs, Gluon, Photon and Graviton, respectively) but the latter (the Graviton) is still to be demonstrated experimentally.
Currently it is still unknown how gravity really works (Newton, Einstein and Hawking, accepted that unknown how gravity works). Newton believed that gravity is an attractive force between masses), while Einstein proposed in his Special Theory of Relativity (the currently accepted officially) the concept of curved space-time as a possible cause.
Currently there are other proposals that try to explain gravity by Quantum Theory, such as Arthur A. Larson that propose it as an interaction of emission and absorption of gravitons from within the nuclei of atoms between them, producing self-movement toward each other atoms. Or, as Hawking said, "an exchange of gravitons between the particles constituting two bodies" that makes them move or attract. Gravity would be then quantified (based on particles) as they are all the other field forces of nature. A quantized gravity is one of the holy grails of science.
If the latter proposal (Larson and Hawking) was correct, would be a major change in the currently accepted scientific concepts about the universe, such as the limitation of the speed of light, the Big Bang and the expanding universe.

Microwave Background Radiation of the Universe

Inflationary theory (if it was also valid outside the boundaries of our universe) predicts the impossibility of traveling between two "bubble universes" outside our own, because the space between them would be still in phase of inflation, expanding faster than the light can travel through it. So, any type of radiation that could prove the existence of this bubble, could not reach to us.

However, physicists have wondered what would happen if two of those bubbles (universes) collide, so that anywhere between them does not exist inflationary phase space, for example against our universe (our bubble).

A study and analysis of the Microwave Background Radiation of the Universe (made ​​by NASA's WMAP) and treated with certain computer filters and algorithms, it seems that detects collisions between other bubbles and ours (Our Universe), in primordial times. Such collisions would occur predictably during the beginning of our universe.

This international team has created a new computerized algorithm to catch such irregularities in Our Universe. That they believe would be of a circular shape, and similar to temporary flattening that happens when a ball hits another.

Luckily, modern telescopes are able to study a faded snapshot of the universe when it was a baby: the Cosmic Microwave Background. The CMB is the radiation emitted by the hot plasma that dominated the universe to about 380,000 years after the "Big Bang", occurred more than 13 billion years ago.

But it could be that the current maps of the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) are not precise enough to detect small changes that presumably indicate a crash or collision inter-universal. So we're waiting for the new Planck space telescope data, which is recording the CMB with a resolution three times better than the most recent mapping CMB, created using the orbiter Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP).

Data collection of Planck is scheduled to end this year, but it will take until January 2013 to filter and eliminating distortions caused by interference from celestial bodies closer to us, in terms of space-time, compared with the CMB.

Universes within the Planck Volume (smaller than the Planck Scale)

The Size (Scale) or Length of Planck (P) is that length below which it is expected that space will no have longer classical geometry. A lower measure of Planck Length can not be treated properly with current physics models due to the emergence of quantum gravity effects. To put it briefly, any particle that is smaller such a length, will no longer have a classical geometry, ie, an object without the dimensions that we know (length, width, and depth).

The Planck Length is calculated as the distance traveled by a photon at the speed of light in the Planck Time, and depends on three fundamental constants, the speed of light (c), the Planck constant (h) and gravitational constant (G). The Planck length is about 10 exp -35 meters.
Furthermore, we can define different Basic Planck Units (length, time, mass, charge and temperature) and Derived Planck Units (energy, strength, power, density, pressure,...).
The Planck Volume is the volume contained in a cube with edges of the Planck length (P cubed).

Can there be something (and even more Universes) within this volume? For our brain it is very difficult to assimilate it. While the possibility of the existence of other universes outside of our own, though difficult but it is understandable, for lower dimensions, it is very difficult to understand and assimilate. Our brain makes us think that there must be an end, a minimum particle that until 100 years ago it was believed to be the atom (Greek "a (no)-tom (divisible)", which means no parts” or indivisible), which was predicted by the former Greece but has not been demonstrated until the nineteenth century.

We must note that the size of Planck (10 exp-35 meters) is 10 exp-25 times smaller than the dimension of a standard atom (10 exp -10 meters). Viewed in another way, for the Planck size is the size of an atom, what for us is the dimension of the Known Universe.

Very little is known of these dimensions, and concepts like Quantum Foam (basic fabric of the universe which is on these lengths), Quantum Gravity (unifying theory), Fractal Quantum Space-Time, Strings (ToE “Theory of Everything”) and Vacuum Energy are confusing and fascinating concepts that are considered in these scales.

The Theory of Kaluza-Klein (1919-1926) proposed the existence of new spatial dimensions additional wound that could be as small as the Planck length. And String Theory proposes the existence of six extra spatial dimensions to those known as Calabi-Yau space.

If confirmed the existence of these extra spatial dimensions beyond the Planck size, it would mean that, all those entities or possible universes that might exist would be multi-dimensional, and would be very different from our universe. And therefore, they would be very difficult to assimilate to our brain and from our reference scale.

What types of stimuli (waves) may come from these so small and multi-dimensional sizes? It is possible that at these scales below the Planck size (under 10 exp -35 meters) there are EM waves (and possible also waves of the strong and weak fields), but these would be very small and short (both length in scope) and also very high energy. But it would also be possible that there may be other types of force fields currently unknown, and their waves, stimuli or signals, all undetectable for us and for the instruments currently available in our scale.

The technology system currently used by our scientists to study particles and phenomena such as small size, are the famous particle colliders. They try to observe and detect radiation and particles produced by colliding very small particles (hadrons, electrons, protons, ... ) together and at very high speeds.

Possibility of the existence and detection of other unknown force fields

As already mentioned, the known Forces Fields are only four: Weak, Strong, Electromagnetic and Gravitational. Gravity was the first force that the man knew (XVII century), before the EM (XIX century) and obviously the Weak and Strong Nuclear forces, (XX century). With these four force fields, are scientifically explained, currently, all observed phenomena in the known Universe.

What would happen if one or more new force fields were discovered? Is this a viable hypothesis?

Obviously, this is a very feasible possibility. If not it would be such as to say that we know almost everything in physics, and that few things we have left to discover. Suppose this would be very pretentious and even irresponsible for serious and rigorous scientific. Especially considering that, four centuries, ago there was not any known. Two centuries ago was known EM, and only 100 years ago were known the weak and strong.

As we have seen, these known forces are more prevalent in some scales than others. Then maybe these other force fields to know presented with greater splendor beyond the known limits of our universe (either in the positive or in the negative). But, if we do not know them, more difficult will be to detect, but not impossible. We simply have to keep an open mind to this possibility and to be alert to any signs or abnormal/strange phenomenon that can not be explained with the known fields.


The Universe (is unique) is limited to the upper scales by the space generated from the Big-Bang (10^+27 meters), and to the lower levels by the Planck scale (10^-35 meters) in which the appearance of Quantum Gravity prevents that a lower measure can not be treated properly with current physical models.
Our known Universe (between 10^-35 &  10^+27 meters) is not more than a small band within the total Global Universe scale spectrum, which, in principle, can be infinite. And as physical science and technology advance, it will widen its stretch.
The Universe (which is unique) began in a Big Bang 13,700 million years ago and it is expanding isotropically since that time.
Our Universe is a "bubble" else of the many that exist in a larger scale than ours within the Global Universe, and which also had (or will have) their own Big Bang at different times.
In the Universe there are four Forces Fields (strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravity) which explain all known physical phenomena.
Out of the current limits of this range scale of Our Universe may be other Force Fields acting very weakly in Our Universe.
Underlying Fundamental Laws of the Universe are the same for the whole universe even that they can manifest differently in the large (Quantum Model) and the small (Relativistic Model).
While we accept that the Underlying Fundamental Laws are the same for all spectra and ranges of the Global Universe, they manifest differently through them, requiring different models that formalize and explain this different zones.
The Universe, currently, can be explained and standardized by two physical models: Quantum Model (for small) and Relativistic Model (for large). And is evolving into a pattern that would unify all previous models (M-theory or Super-string), covering the entire universe.
For the different bands of the 3D Rainbow of the Global Universe, may dominate different models and patterns to better explain its phenomena (Relativistic and Quantum Models). The M-theory may simply cover a wider range of zones, encompassing the previous models.
The Universe is unique, and all waves and stimuli, and the fields and forces we know, are what conform the whole. Only would be possible other Parallel Universes, and potential living beings, in other Spatial Dimensions.
For the different bands of the spectrum of the 3D Rainbow may dominate different stimuli and waves, different fields and forces. And can be formed different entities and bodies. Parallel Universes can coexist, and even different living beings in different Scale Levels.
Our species is halfway between the largest structures and the smallest of the Universe, and we are very lucky because it serves as a platform to observe the universe in all its aspects.
Our species is halfway between the largest structures and the smallest of the known universe, because from the reference spectrum scale where we are, that is what our technology and expertise allows us to observe and learn towards the two directions.
The Universe is considered a closed physical system in which the energy contained in it is constant.
Different levels of scales can be considered Physical Open Systems, and this would mean that there could be an exchange of energy between them.



Electromagnetic waves of very high wavelengths (above 10 exp +30 meters) that cross Our Universe.
Gravitational Waves from Stochastic Funds generated by the Big Bang of other universes outside Our Universe.
Microwave Background Radiation of the Universe treated with certain filters and computer algorithms to detect collisions of other bubbles out of (or against) Our Universe.
Other waves generated by unknown force fields (from other universes), that prevail only on scales very high (above 10 exp +30 meters), but their influence can be very weak in our scales.

Electromagnetic waves of very low wavelengths (bellow 10 exp -35 meters), although its scope can be very short and difficult to detect.
Potential Waves generated by Weak and Strong Fields.
Other waves generated by unknown force fields, that prevail only on scales very low (bellow 10 exp -35 meters), but their influence can be very weak at higher levels.